2.Survey: Measurement and Scaling

2.4 Multi-item Scales

Latent Constructs

A Latent Construct – is a variable that cannot be observed or measured directly but can be inferred from other observable measurable variables.

Thus, the researcher must capture the variable through questions representing the presence/level of the variable in question.


Latent Constructs & Multi-Item Scales


Latent Constructs & Multi-Item Scales


  • Satisfaction
  • Loyalty
  • Trust
  • Service Quality
  • Purchase intention
  • Attitude Toward the Brand
  • Involvement
  • Price Perception
  • Website Ease-of-Use


+ allow to assess abstract concepts

+ make it easier to understand the data and phenomenon

+ reduce dimensionality of data through aggregating a large number of observable variables in a model to represent an underlying concept

+ link observable (“sub-symbolic”) data of the real world to symbolic data in the modeled world


Multi-Item Scales: Make or Steal


Secure Customer Index™
Assessing Consumer Loyalty and Retention

Overall Satisfaction:

4 = very satisfied
3 = somewhat satisfied
2 = somewhat dissatisfied
1 = very dissatisfied

Willingness to Recommend:

5 = definitely would recommend
4 = probably would recommend
3 = might or might not recommend
2= probably would not recommend
1= definitely would not recommend

Likelihood to Use Again:

5 = definitely will use again
4 = probably will use again
3= might or might not use again
2= probably will not use again
1 = definitely will not use again

Secure Customers   % very satisfied/definitely would repeat/definitely would recommend

Favorable Customers


% giving at least “second best” response on all three measures of satisfaction and loyalty


Vulnerable Customers


% somewhat satisfied/might or might not repeat/might or might not recommend


At Risk Customers


% somewhat satisfied or dissatisfied/probably or definitely would not repeat/probably or definitely would not recommend

Extended Secure Customer Index™ Burke Inc.

Overall Satisfaction  What is your overall level of satisfaction with (BRAND/CO)?

Willingness to Recommend


If you were asked to recommend a (INDUSTRY) how likely would you be to recommend (BRAND/CO.)?


Likelihood to Repurchase


How likely are you to continue using (BRAND/CO.)?


Earned Loyalty


(BRAND/CO.) has earned my loyalty


Preferred Company


I prefer (BRAND/CO.) to all other providers

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